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Sunday, 28 February 2016 18:07

This Day in History (10-12-1394)

This Day in History (10-12-1394)

Today is Monday; 10th of the Iranian month of Esfand 1394 solar hijri; corresponding to 20th of the Islamic month of Jamadi al-Awwal 1437 lunar hijri; and February 29, 2016, of the Christian Gregorian Calendar.


2061 solar years ago, on this day in 45 BC, the first Leap Day was recognized by proclamation of Roman dictator, Julius Caesar. Under the old Roman calendar the last day of February was the last day of the year. February 29 is a date that usually occurs every four years, and is called leap day. This day is added to the calendar in leap years as a corrective measure, because the Earth does not orbit around the sun in precisely 365 days.

804 solar years ago, on this day in 1212 AD, Honen, Japanese monk, founded Jodo-shu as the first independent branch of Japanese Pure Land Buddhism. It is the most widely practiced branch of Buddhism in Japan, along with Jodo Shinshu.

755 lunar years ago, on this day in 682 AH, Fakhr al-Muhaqqin Mohammad ibn Hassan al-Hilli was born in Hilla in Iraq. He was the son of the celebrated Allamah Hilli, under whose guidance he grew up and reached the status of Ijtehad – independent reasoning based on Holy Qur'an and Prophet’s Hadith. He lived a life of piety. He wrote prolifically on a wide variety of topics including exegesis of the holy Qur'an, theology, jurisprudence, and philosophy. Among his books, mention can be made of “al-Kafia”, and Tahsil an-Nejaat”. He passed away in 771 AH.

700 lunar years ago, on this day in 737 AH, the North African Islamic scholar, Abu Abdullah Mohammad ibn al-Haj al-Abdari al-Fasi, passed away in Egypt. He wrote the book “Madkhal ash-Shara ash-Shareef ala'l-Madhaheb” (Introduction to Islamic Jurisprudence According to the Schools of Thought). Published in 4 volumes, it treats many different subjects. His views are very much influenced by the Iranian scholar al-Ghazali's "Ihya’ Uloum ad-Din". He spent much of his life in Tunis and Egypt and, for some time taught at the Universities of Fez in Morocco.

175 solar years ago, on this day in 1841 AD, John Philip Holland, inventor of the modern submarine, was born in Liscannor, County Clare, in Ireland, into a family that had survived the Great Potato Famine. Following his immigration to America in 1873, Holland settled in Paterson, New Jersey where he taught at school and, with financial backing from the Irish Fenian Society, began developing his first submarine. In 1881, Holland launched the Fenian Ram, a 31-foot-long submersible powered by a 15-horsepower internal combustion engine. With Holland at the controls, the Ram dived 64 feet beneath New York Harbor that summer, only to be seized by the Fenians when they lost interest in the project. In 1895, the J.P. Holland Torpedo Boat Company won a contract from the U.S. Navy to build a submarine. After one discouraging failure, the second submarine, the Holland VI, passed her sea trials and was purchased by the US Navy on April 11, 1900 for $150,000

56 solar years ago, on this day in 1960, a major earthquake jolted the port city of Agadir in western Morocco on the Atlantic coast, resulting in the death of at least 12,000 people. It lasted for only 15 seconds, was followed by a Tsunami and was the most destructive earthquake in North Africa.

37 solar years ago, on this day in 1979 AD, the Father of the Islamic Revolution, Imam Khomeini (God bless him), returned to his seat of learning, holy Qom, after over 14 years in exile abroad, and 28 days after landing in Tehran to lead the people’s grassroots movement to victory. In 1964, after his critical speech in Qom against the injustices and anti-Islamic policies of the British-installed and US-backed Pahlavi regime, especially the disgraceful capitulation bill granting immunity to American criminals, he was arrested, brought to Tehran, and forced into exile – first to Turkey and then to holy Najaf in Iraq. On his return this day to Qom, where he had first moved in 1921 and stayed for the next 44 years to learn and then emerge as a leading Marja’ or Source of Emulation, he took up residence in a modest house. Several months later, responsibilities of supervising the smooth functioning of the Islamic Republic system in the face of internal and external plots, made him take up residence in Tehran for the remaining ten years of his fruitful life.  

28 solar years ago, on this day, in 1988 AD, following repeated defeats of the Ba'thist invaders at the Iranian borders, Saddam unleashed cowardly missile attacks on residential areas of Tehran and other cities. These US-supported dastardly missile attacks continued for almost 45 days, but failed to break the resistance of the Iranian people. As many as 16 missiles hit Tehran this day. It was the 4th time during the 8-year imposed war that Saddam had attacked Iranian cities.

24 solar years ago, on this day in 1992 AD, Muslims and Croats in Bosnia-Herzegovina began casting ballots in an independence referendum; Serbs boycotted the vote, and started military activities and finally genocide of the Muslims in a bid to stall independence.


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