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Sunday, 28 February 2016 06:16

This Day in History (09-12-1394)

This Day in History (09-12-1394)

Today is Sunday; 9th of the Iranian month of Esfand 1394 solar hijri; corresponding to 19th of the Islamic month of Jamadi al-Awwal 1437 lunar hijri; and February 28, 2016, of the Christian Gregorian Calendar.

 

1388 solar years ago, on this day in 628 AD, the 22nd and last great Sassanid Emperor, Khosrau II, was executed by Mihr Hormozd on the orders of his own son Qobad II (Kavadh), three days after being deposed in the rebellion of the nobles, in the wake of a string of defeats suffered in Egypt, Syria, Turkey, Armenia, and Iraq towards the end of the 26-year long war against Byzantine or the Eastern Roman Empire. Khosrau II, during his 38-year long rule had executed Mihr Hormozd’s father, also made the fatal mistake of tearing the letter of invitation to Islam sent to him from Medina by Prophet Mohammad (SAWA).

770 solar years ago, on this day in 1246 AD, the Siege of the Spanish Muslim emirate of Ja’en ended in the surrender of the city of the same name to Ferdinand III of Castile after decades of resistance against the encroachment by Christian mercenary forces. It ended over five centuries of glorious Muslim rule that produced scholars and scientists, and brought the Christians closer to the Emirate of Granada, the last bastion of Spanish Muslims which was occupied in 1492.

525 lunar years ago, on this day in 911 AH, the famous Egyptian hadith scholar, lexicographer, and exegete of the holy Qur'an, Abdur-Rahman Jalaleddin Suyuti, passed away in Cairo at the age of 62. Born in a family of Persian origin that had migrated from Iran during the Mamluk period and settled in Asyut, in Upper Egypt from where it derived the family name as-Suyuti, he was a follower of the Shafe’i School. An expert in jurisprudence, hadith, history, exegesis of the Holy Qur'an, and Arabic grammar and literature, he earned the title “Ibn al-Kutub” or Son of Books. His books are still taught today in Islamic seminaries. In his exegesis titled "ad-Dur al-Manthour" (Scattered Pearls), he has pointed to the ayahs revealed by God Almighty on the outstanding merits of Prophet Mohammad's (SAWA) Ahl al-Bayt, i.e. Hazrat Fatema Zahra (SA), Imam Ali (AS), Imam Hasan (AS) and Imam Husain (AS). He also wrote a separate book on the Merits of the Ahl al-Bayt. Suyuti traveled to Syria, Hijaz, Yemen, India and Morocco, and settled down towards the end of his life in his homeland Egypt. Among his works mention can be made of “al-Itqaan fi Uloum al-Qur’an” which means The Perfect Guide to the Sciences of the Qur’an, the two books on hadith titled “al-Jaame' al-Kabeer” and “al-Jaame' as-Sagheer” and the “Tarikh al-Khulafa” (History of the Caliphs), in which he has exposed the true nature of many of the tyrannical caliphs of the Omayyad and Abbasid dynasties.

491 solar years ago, on this day in 1525 AD, the Aztec king, Cuauhtemoc, was treacherously executed by the Spanish occupier of Mexico, Hernan Cortes, the mass murderer of the Amerindian people. Cuauhtemoc took power in 1520 at the age of 25 as successor to Cuitlahuac, and was a cousin and son-in-law of the former emperor Moctezuma II. He ascended the throne while the capital Tenochtitlan was besieged by the Spanish and devastated by an epidemic of smallpox brought to the New World by the European invaders.He called for reinforcements from the countryside to defend the capital, which after eighty days of warfare fell to the Spanish. Cuauhtemoc was captured on August 13, 1521, while fleeing Tenochtitlan by crossing Lake Texcoco in disguise with his wife, family, and friends. In 1525, Cortes took Cuauhtemoc and several other indigenous nobles on his expedition to Honduras, and while in the Chontal Maya capital of Itzamkanac, he had Cuauhtemoc cowardly murdered for allegedly conspiring to kill him. Today many places in Mexico are named in honour of Cuauhtemoc and his statues adorn public places. Cuauhtemoc is also one of the few popular non-Spanish names for Mexican boys.

331 solar years ago, on this day in 1685 AD, French composer, George Frideric Handel, was born. In 1713, he took up residence in England, where he created most of his works. His songs carry religious themes and include such works as “Messiah”, and “Samson”. He died in 1759.

297 solar years ago, on this day in 1719, Farrukhsiyar, the 9th Mughal Emperor of the Subcontinent, was deposed, blinded and strangled to death at the age of 33, after a 6-year reign, because of plotting against the Seyyed Brothers – Mir Hassan Ali Khan and Mir Husain Ali Khan – whose support had been instrumental in his defeat of his uncle Jahandar Shah and his crowning as king. An exceptionally handsome person, he was devoid of administrative skills, lacked character, and was easily swayed by evil advisors. Although, he checked the Maratha insurgency, because of Mir Husain Ali Khan’s prowess, and crushed the rebellion of the Sikhs in the Punjab, it was during his reign that the outlying provinces started the drift towards autonomy –  Bengal under Murshid Quli Khan, the Deccan under Asef Jah Nizam ul-Mulk, and Sindh under Noor Mohammad Kalhoro.

94 solar years ago, on this day in 1922 AD, the British were forced to recognize the independence of Egypt, because of the resistance of the Egyptian people against colonial domination. In 1882, the British had occupied the port city of Alexandria and declared weakened Egypt as their protectorate.

69 solar years ago, on this day in 1947 AD, some 30,000 civilians were massacred in Taiwan by the Republican government in one of the worst massacres.

53 solar years ago, on this day in 1963 AD, India’s first president, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, died in office in Delhi at the age of 79 after serving the country as head of state for 13 years. Born in Siwan district of Bihar State, his father was a scholar of both the Persian and Sanskrit languages, who despite being a Hindu, placed his five-year-old son under the tutelage of an accomplished Muslim scholar to learn the Urdu and Persian languages, as well as arithmetic. After obtaining MA in economics, he joined the Indian National Congress in 1911 for struggle against British colonial rule, and was soon elected chairman of the party. Following India’s independence in 1947 and establishment of republican system in 1950, he was elected as the country’s first president, a post which he retained for 12 years until his death in office.

25 solar years ago, on this day in 1991 AD, ceasefire was declared by the US against Iraq, thereby ending the 40-day war against the Ba'thist forces of Saddam for their occupation of Kuwait. In August 1990, following the US green signal, Saddam invaded and occupied Kuwait in a single day, claiming the tiny Persian Gulf emirate to be an integral part of Iraq, despite the billions of dollars of support provided by the Emir of Kuwait for his 8-year war against the Islamic Republic of Iran.

19 solar years ago, on this day in 1997 AD, a 6.1 earthquake at Ardebil in northwest Iran struck at 4:27 p.m. local time. The quake damaged 110 villages and killed some 3,000 people. A second 5.1 quake followed in 2 days.

14 solar years ago, on this day in 2002 AD, Hindu mobs in Gujarat state of India massacred at least 96 Muslims as they burned shops and attacked residences in Ahmadabad. A mob descended on the Gulberg Society, a cluster of homes in Ahmadabad, brutally killing 68 people including former member of the Indian parliament, Ahsan Jaferi. In 2007 videotaped confessions showed Hindu activists acknowledging their roles in the killings and detailing blatant state collusion. In 2011 a court sentenced 31 Hindus to life imprisonment for killing dozens of Muslims by setting a building on fire in a village in Mehsana district. Some 33 Muslims, including 20 women who had taken shelter there, were burned alive.

AS/ME

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