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Saturday, 27 February 2016 04:39

This Day in History (08-12-1394)

This Day in History (08-12-1394)

Today is Saturday; 8th of the Iranian month of Esfand 1394 solar hijri; corresponding to 18th of the Islamic month of Jamadi al-Awwal 1437 lunar hijri; and February 27, 2016, of the Christian Gregorian Calendar.

 

1744 solar years ago, on this day in 272 AD, Constantine I, the Emperor who imposed the Pauline Creed on the Roman Empire, was born in Dardania in the Balkans. His father, Flavius Valerius Constantius, was an army officer, and it is not known whether his mother Helena was a wife or a concubine. When his father became deputy emperor in the west in 293, Constantine was sent east, where he became a military tribune under the emperors Diocletian and Galerius – notorious for their persecution of the monotheist followers of Prophet Jesus (AS), and those who later came to be known as Christians. In 305, his father was raised to the rank of Augustus, or senior western emperor, and Constantine was recalled west to campaign in Britannia. Acclaimed as emperor by the army after his father's death in 306, Constantine emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against the emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324. He built a new imperial residence at Byzantium and named it New Rome, but it was called Constantinople in his honour. Later the city served as capital of Byzantine or the Eastern Roman Empire for over a thousand years, before falling in 1453 to the Ottoman Turks, who renamed the city Islambol (Istanbul), and made it the capital of their empire for the next 470 years. Constantine has earned lasting notoriety for persecuting Arianism and the purely monotheistic followers of Prophet Jesus (AS).The form of Christianity he imposed is actually the innovation of Paul the Hellenized Jew, who was a fierce opponent of Prophet Jesus (AS), but after him, claimed to be his follower in order to distort the monotheistic message of the Messiah, by coining the weird concept of Trinity that was more closer to the Roman pantheon of deities.

1636 solar years ago, on this day in 380 AD, the Edict of Thessalonica was issued by Roman Emperor Theodosius I, with co-emperors Gratian and Valentinian II, forcing all Roman citizens to convert to the Trinitarian form of Christianity, or else be branded as heretics, subject to punishment.  This weird concept of ‘godfather’, ‘godson’ and the ‘holy ghost’ – an invention of Paul the Hellenized Jew who was a staunch opponent of Prophet Jesus (AS) during his mission on earth and after him feigned to be his follower – was designed to suit the polytheist beliefs of European pagans, in opposition to the monotheist message of the Virgin-born Messiah.

1109 lunar years ago, on this day in 328 AH, the Spanish Muslim theologian and poet, Ahmad ibn Mohammad Ibn Abd Rabbihi, passed away. His great anthology, titled “al-Iqd al-Fareed” (The Unique Necklace), is a voluminous work divided into 25 sections. The 13th section is named the middle jewel of the necklace, and the chapters on either side are named after other jewels. It is a masterpiece of Arabic literature. Although he was descended from Spanish Christian converts to Islam, spent all his life in Spain and did not travel to the Islamic East like some other Spanish Muslim scholars, it is evident from the contents that he was well versed in the affairs of the Eastern Islamic world extending into Khorasan, Central Asia and present day Pakistan. He has also chronicled the merits of the Ahl al-Bayt or Infallible Household of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA) and detailed the seditious events in the early days of Islam when the caliphate was hijacked from the Prophet’s family. His poems are found scattered in many books, and here is a translation from Arabic of one of his couplets titled “The White Complexion”

“Never have I seen or heard of such a thing; a pearl that for modesty transforms itself into a cornelian.

“So white is her face, that, when you contemplate her perfection, you see your own face submerged in its clarity.”

507 solar years ago, on this day in 1509 AD, nine years after the discovery of Brazil by the Portuguese explorer, Pedro Alvarez Cabral, Portugal formally established its hegemony on this large swathe of South America. Until the independence of Brazil in the year 1822, France and Holland on several occasions tried to seize this territory but failed. Over the centuries, the Portuguese forcibly brought three million black people from Africa to Brazil for forced labor in sugarcane plantations. At the same time, the persecution of the indigenous Latin American people led to numerous uprisings against the Portuguese colonialists; which were all brutally suppressed. Although Brazil gained its independence in the year 1822, the presence and infiltration of the Portuguese in this country continued for several more decades.

325 solar years ago, on this day in 1691 AD, English publisher, Edward Cave, who founded “The Gentleman's Magazine” in 1731, was born in Newton near Rugby in Warwickshire. “The Gentleman's Magazine” was the first to use the term magazine for a periodical from the French word magazine, meaning "storehouse". A monthly digest of news and commentary on any topic the educated public might be interested in, from commodity prices to Latin poetry, it ran uninterrupted for almost 200 years, until 1922. The famous lexicographer Samuel Johnson's first regular employment as a writer was with “The Gentleman's Magazine”.

209 solar years ago, on this day in 1807 AD, American poet, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, was born in Portland, Maine. His famous poems include The Children's Hour”, “Evangeline” and “What is time?” He died in 1882.

172 solar years ago, on this day in 1844 AD, Dominica, which the Haitian revolutionary leader, Toussaint Louverture, had seized from the Spanish in 1801, declared its independence. In 1916, it was occupied by the US, which 8 years later in 1924, due to the resistance of the Dominican people, was forced to sign a treaty for gradual withdrawal of American occupation forces. Colonel Rafael Trujillo staged a coup in 1930 and for 30 years until his assassination, he ruled the country. Thereafter, the US has often interfered in this country, which shares the Hispaniola Island with Haiti.

137 solar years ago, on this day in 1879, AD, saccharin, the artificial sweetener, was accidentally discovered by Constantin Fahlberg, while he was researching coal tar compounds for Ira Remsen at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. With hands unwashed since leaving his laboratory work, during a meal, he accidentally discovered its intensely sweet taste when his fingers touched his lips. He subsequently obtained patents on its synthesis, and with his uncle, Dr. Adolf List, started a factory to produce and market it. Fahlberg became wealthy by taking the outcome of a laboratory experiment and pursuing a commercial path for it.

114 solar years ago, on this day in 1902 AD, American novelist, John Steinbeck, was born in Salinas, California. His famous works include “The Grapes of Wrath”, and Of Mice and Men”.

84 solar years ago, on this day in 1932 AD, the neutron was discovered by Dr. James Chadwick at Cambridge University of Britain. He suggested that the new radiation consisted of uncharged particles of approximately the mass of the proton, and he performed a series of experiments verifying his suggestion. These uncharged particles were called neutrons, apparently from the Latin root for neutral and the Greek ending -on (by imitation of electron and proton). The neutron has been key to the production of nuclear power. In 1933 it was realized that it might mediate a nuclear chain reaction. When nuclear fission was discovered in 1938, it became clear that, if the process also produced neutrons, this might be the mechanism to produce the neutrons for a chain reaction. This was proven in 1939, opening the path to nuclear power production. These findings led to the first self-sustaining, man-made, nuclear chain reaction in 1942, and its subsequent misuse resulted in 1945 in the production of the first nuclear weapons, which the US criminally dropped in an act of state terrorism on the unsuspecting Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, when World War 2 had virtually ended.

74 solar years ago, on this day in 1942 AD, during World War II, the major air strikes of Japanese warplanes against the Allied Powers’ naval units started. These operations took place in the Sea of Java and destroyed many American, Australian, and British warships.

30 solar years ago, on this day in 1986 AD, Iranian singer, Gholam-Hussein Banaan, passed away after a long illness at the age of 75. He started his singing career on Iran Radio in 1942, and two years later after foundation of the National Music Society, he started grooming students. He was not only a master of traditional and classical Iranian music but was also a maestro of Iran’s modern music. His cooperation with Iran Radio led to creation of 450 songs, which have remained to this day as highly valuable works on Iran’s musical scene.

6 solar years ago, on this day in 2010 AD, a magnitude 8.8 earthquake struck Chile, toppling homes, collapsing bridges and plunging trucks into the fractured earth. The death toll was over 700, while 1.5 million Chileans were affected and 150,000 left homeless. A tsunami caused by the quake swept across the Pacific and killed several people on a Chilean island. It devastated coastal communities near the epicenter. Damages were later estimated at $30 billion.

5 solar years ago, on this day in 2011 AD, former Turkish premier, Najm od-Din Erbakan, passed away at the age of 84. He was born in the northern Turkish city of Sinop and studied Mechanical Engineering at Istanbul University, on the completion of which he left for Germany to earn a PhD at Aachen University. On return to Turkey, he was appointed a university professor in 1967. He entered politics in 1969, and was soon elected MP. He founded several Islamic-oriented parties, which the military authorities forcibly dissolved. He became leader of the Welfare Islamic Party in 1987, and in 1996 was democratically elected as Prime Minister. His policy of expansion of Turkey's relations with Muslim countries was unbearable for the military, the Zionist regime of Israel, and the US. For this reason, the military officers forced him to resign.

AS/ME

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