We now join you again in this day of grief, since it was on the 28th of Safar, 50 AH, 39 years after the Prophet’s departure from the world that his elder grandson and 2nd Infallible Heir, was martyred through a fatal dose of poisoning. Here is an special feature on the son of Imam Ali and Hazrat Fatema Zahra (peace upon them), who through the masterstroke of a peace treaty with Mua’wiyah ibn Abu Sufyan, the rebellious governor of the Province of Syria, unmasked hypocrisy and Omayyad heathenry in their true colours.
Born in Medina in 3 AH, Imam Hasan (PuH) needs no introduction. He and his younger brother, Imam Husain (PuH) were hailed by the Prophet of Islam as “Leaders of the Youth of Paradise”. The Prophet also said that Hasan and Husain are the Imams, whether they sit or rise. It means that irrespective of their decision to make peace or engage in armed combat in self-defence, both his grandsons are the Leaders of the Ummah, and it is incumbent on Muslims to follow them, because those who do not adhere to the path of the Ahl al-Bayt have gone astray.
As we read in the holy Qur’an, Ayah 61 of Surah Aal-e Imran, on God’s command the Prophet had taken his two grandsons to the famous debate or Mubahela with the Christians of Najran, along with his daughter, Hazrat Fatema and son-in-law, Imam Ali (peace upon them), and no one else besides. The Ahl al-Bayt as the Prophet’s immediate family was known, have also been kept flawlessly pure from any impurity by God Almighty as is evident by the Ayah 33 of Surah al-Ahzaab.
Thus, in view of such outstanding merits, it was but natural for Imam Hasan (PuH) to succeed his father Imam Ali (PuH) as caliph or political ruler of the Islamic realm, on the latter’s martyrdom in Kufa in 40 AH. As a matter of fact, the overwhelming majority of people endorsed his rule, since according to the Prophet’s statement he was the 2nd divinely-designated Imam of mankind. Alas, the people of Iraq were of weak faith with no stomach to resist any aggressor, and this led to a sad turn of events in Islamic history. When Mu'awiyah, the avowed enemy of the Prophet’s Ahl al-Bayt, learnt of the people’s pledge of allegiance to Imam Hasan (PuH), he coveted the caliphate and set off towards Iraq, the seat of government of Imam Hasan (PuH). His intention was not to fight, since he was afraid of defeat, from whose jaws he was saved only through deceit by hoisting copies of the holy Qur’an spear points and begging for cessation of hostilities, when the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (PuH) was about to annihilate him in the Battle of Siffin. The crafty Mu'awiyah decided to use bribes to deceive the commanders of the army of Imam Hasan (PuH) with empty promises and money. Therefore, Imam Hasan (PuH) had no other option but to defend himself against this sedition by mobilizing his armies. But the deceit of Mu’awiyah became widespread, as commanders of the forces sent by the Imam, began to desert him on receiving money from the rebel, while others who were with him, were reluctant to take up arms against the Omayyad aggressors. Moreover, assassins had been sent to try to murder the Prophet’s elder grandson. Imam Hasan (PuH) realizing the gravity of the situation and the confusion of the people who were duped into thinking that Mu’awiyah was a Muslim, decided to avert unnecessary bloodshed through a treaty, as his grandfather the Prophet had done decades ago at Hodaibiya against the Meccan infidels, in whose ranks were Mu’awiyah and his father Abu Sufyan, who were still pagans.
According to books of history and hadith, the main condition Imam Hasan (PuH) set for handing over the political power to Mu’awiyah was to be just to the people and keep them safe and secure. Here are some clauses of Treaty:
- Authority will be handed to Mu’awiyah provided that he should act according to the Book of Allah, and the Sunnah of the Prophet.
- In case of the death of Mu’awiyah, the caliphate should return to Imam Hasan (PuH), and if an accident occurs, it should be handed over the Prophet’s younger grandson, Imam Husain (PuH).
- Mu’awiyah has no right to entrust the caliphate to anyone else.
- Mua’wiya should stop the blasphemous practice of reviling the memory of the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (PuH). He should not mention the name of Imam Ali (PuH), unless in a good and respectable manner.
- The revenues of Darabgerd in Fars Province of Iran should be given to the families of the Martyrs of the Battles of Jamal, Siffin, and Nahrwan.
- The people should be safe wherever they are in the Islamic realm.
- Mu’awiyah should give security to all races, especially to the companions of Imam Ali (PuH).
- Mu’awiyah should not hatch plots, either openly or secretly against the Imam Hasan and Imam Husain, nor for any of the Prophet’s Ahl al-Bayt.
Mu'awiyah entered Iraq, while Imam Hasan (PuH) retired to Medina. In a public address, he revoked all the peace terms. After that he arrested and tortured the Shi'a or followers of the Household of the Prophet of Islam. During this period Imam Hassan (AS) lived without any security and safety at his home and was finally martyred in 50 AH through a fatal dose of poison given to him on the orders of Mu’awiyah. When Imam Hasan (PuH) was being laid to rest his coffin was showered with arrows by Marwan the Omayyad governor of Medina. We renew our condolences on the tragic martyrdom anniversary of the Prophet’s elder grandson.