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Tuesday, 05 August 2014 05:36

Iranian Notables, Sources of Global Honor (10)

Previously, we spoke of Farsi language and terms of its expansion and influence throughout territories of Iran and Islamic lands. We also pointed out that Farsi was considered as the indigenous language throughout the Samanid era. Also, we noted that Farsi turned into the official language by the originally Turk rulers, while manifesting its international capacity due to acceptance of terms and concepts from different cultures of the Muslim world.

During the 6th Century AH, the majority of Islamic lands, under the military and political domination of the originally Turk rulers, were influenced by Iranian culture. These rulers promoted Farsi language from India and China to Asia Minor and turned into one of the most accredited international languages. The influence of Farsi language in a number of regions such as India was such that the authors and poets of these regions presented their works in this language.

As of Taymurid era, there were writers and poets who mastered both Farsi and Turkish languages, such as Amir Alishir Navai, who lived in Herat and composed poems in both of these two languages.

Asia Minor (present day Turkey) turned into one of the realms of promotion of Farsi language as of the reign of Saljuqid Dynasty. Rome’s Saljuqids, after leaving for Asia Minor and its conquest, were under the influence of Iranian culture and Farsi language, like Iran’s Saljuqid Dynasty, while their official and literary language was Farsi. At the time, the Turkish literary language had not taken shape in this region of Asia and the regional Turks conversed in Turkish language. However, their official, literary, and administrative language was Farsi. Rome’s Saljuqid kings had Farsi names and could appropriately speak and write in Farsi language. Up to now, no document or writing in Turkish language has been found from the royal courts of Iran’s and Rome’s Saljuqid Dynasties.

Throughout the journey of the renowned Iranian poet of 6th Century AH, Jalal Ed-Din Molana, form his hometown, Balkh, to the Capital of Rome’s Saljuqid, Konia, Farsi language was so common that everywhere he encountered people, who were familiar with his language, culture, and traditions. Although Konia was far from his hometown, Balkh, the former city had a familiar environment for Molana. He composed poems in Farsi, because this was his own language and his addressees in this land were also familiar with Farsi.

The Ottoman administration, whose dynasty was rooted in the Saljuqid Turks in Iran, was under the influence of Farsi language. The majority of Ottoman rulers were devoted to Farsi language, poems, and literature and alike Iranians were familiar with the collection of poems of the renowned Iranian poet, Hafez.

Arnold Toynbee believes that when the Ottoman ruler, Sultan Saleem, who was completely under the influence of Iranian civilization and Farsi language, conquered half of Europe, in fact it was the Iranian civilization which spread in Europe. When he conquered Egypt and Cairo, also it was the Iranian civilization which conquered Arab civilization, because the fall of Cairo was as important as the fall of Constantinople throughout the Crusades.

According to Toynbee; the Safavid King, Shah Ismail, and the Ottoman King, Sultan Saleem, both were the products of Iranian civilization. Sultan Saleem wrote poems in Farsi, and Farsi language was common in his royal court.

The Ottoman King, Sultan Bayzid, was kind to Iranian poets and Ulema, such as Jaami, and had allocated allowances for them. Sultan Mohammad Faateh, after the conquest of Constantinople and its pillage, recited the odes of Khaqani in Farsi language.

The courtier poets of the Ottomans imitated major Farsi poets.

The Turkish prose and verse of the Ottomans were founded by the originally Iranian Farsi speakers of Turkey. Turks were indebted to Farsi literature for the artistic expression of thoughts. The first poet who composed poems in Turkish language was Baha Od-Din, the son of renowned Iranian poet, Molavi. He composed an elegy in Farsi, which included 156 lines in Turkish language and in this manner Turkish literature was founded. The first poets, who composed poems in Turkish language in the Ottoman Empire also knew Farsi and wrote poems in this language as well, such as Emad Ed-Din Nasimi, who wrote poems in Farsi and Arabic. But, his collection of poems is in Turkish language.

The Farsi language and poetry was common in Asia Minor, and even in Balkans, which had been conquered by the Ottomans. One of the most accredited commentaries on the collection of poems of Hafez has been penned by one of the Bosnian literary figures, Mohammad Soudi Bosnavi, who mastered Farsi and Arabic literature.

The Mongol Turks which dominated East Turkistan were also familiar with Farsi language, such that a Mongol prince, Heydar MIrza, had written a book on the history of Mongols of Central Asia in Farsi language.

Even throughout the domination of Muslims on Spain, the Farsi culture and language was highly accredited and hand-written books of Iranian scientists such as Avicenna were highly expensive over there.

Based on evidences, Iranians, for the first time promoted Islam in China. The French professor, Sheffer, notes that the majority of Chinese Muslims were originally Iranians, who settled there. Still, Farsi terms are highly common among Chinese Muslims in the observation of their religious rituals.

Given these evidences, Farsi turned into an international language in the World of Islam as of 6th Century AH, and was the means of communication of Muslims for several centuries.

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