Iran http://english.irib.ir Mon, 20 Feb 2017 13:43:11 +0000 en-gb Iran Your Attractive Destination (187) http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/218851-iran-your-attractive-destination-187 http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/218851-iran-your-attractive-destination-187

Welcome to the 187th weekly episode of the series Iran Your Attractive Destination. In this episode, we discuss Golestan Palace Museum and the buildings within this compound. Golestan Palace complex has been witness to many developments throughout two centuries of Iran’s history. Meanwhile, on June 23, 2013, within the 37th round of annual meetings of the Global Heritage Committee of UNESCO, which was convened in Cambodia, Golestan Palace was registered as a global heritage. Golestan Palace complex has now turned into a museum, hosting innumerable domestic and foreign tourists, every year.

 

Golestan Palace Museum compound is one of the important historical and cultural monuments of Iran, which is situated in Central Tehran, covering an area of 5.5 hectares. This complex dates back to four centuries ago and displays an important phase of Iran’s history. In fact, this complex is a reminder of Tehran’s historical citadel.

Tehran’s historical citadel dates back to Safavid era and the rule of Safavid King, Shah Tahmasb the First. It was reconstructed throughout the period of reign of Karim Khan Zand, and turned into the place of residence of Qajarid kings and courtiers, later on. The Qajarid King, Naser Ed-Din Shah, made some changes in Golestan compound. Throughout the Pahlavi regime, Golestan Palace was used as the venue of official ceremonies and the place of residence of foreign presidents and especial guests. Nonetheless, parts of Golestan Palace were destroyed for baseless reasons during this period of time.

Following the victory of the Islamic Revolution, Golestan compound turned into a museum, and was put on public display.

The rare historical and cultural works and items which have been gathered at Golestan historical and cultural compound are rather unique. More than 80,000 historical items, 500,000 papers of historical documents, coupled with 50,000 photos dating back to the Qajarid era exist in Golestan Palace Museum complex. In this complex, in addition to maintenance of valuable documents, photos, and items; there are beautiful historical monuments with unique architectural styles.

The delicate soul of the Iranian artists, upon the usage of the arts of architecture, painting, stone cutting, tile work, plasterworks, decoration with cut pieces of mirror, marquetry, and parquetry, has created a beautiful building in the middle of these royal palaces which is one of a kind, capturing the attention of all viewers. This building, known as “Ayvaan-e Takht-e Marmar”, belongs to the Zandieh era, and was constructed upon the order of Karim Khan Zand in the year 1760 AD.

“Talar-e Ayeneh”, in this compound, is the outcome of years of hard work of Iranian artists, who have placed small pieces of mirror in geometrical shapes on the ceiling and walls of this hall. The popularity of this hall is mainly due to its decorations and the well-known painting of the Qajarid era Painter, Kamal Ul-Mulk, in this hall, which has been drawn in the year 1309 AH. Next to the walls of this hall, “Talar-e Salam” is located. Upon entry to Talar-e Salam, the chandeliers and decorated arches of this venue meet the eye.

The arches of this hall have been skillfully decorated with beautiful plasterworks by the expert Asadollah Qazvini.  Around this hall, the gifts of foreign leaders to Qajarid kings are on display, which were presented to these kings in return for the pillage of the wealth of this land.

Talar-e Salam was allocated for especial ceremonies. The basement of this hall is currently divided into two sections. The eastern section is allocated for display of delicate arts which were common in the Qajarid era, and its western section is for the manifestation of the paintings of Iranian painters, who lived in the Qajarid era.

The best known building of the Golestan Palace complex is Shams ul-Emareh. It is one of the first multistory buildings which have been constructed in Tehran, and had been used as a vantage point for viewing the city. The importance of this building is mainly due to its height, decorations, and design. One of the features of this building is its watch tower. Currently, in the first floor of this building, a permanent exhibition of handwritten and artistic books is underway.

The treasury of books in Golestan Palace is one of the most accredited and globally known centers for maintenance of handwritten and artistic books. This collection partly presents Iran’s written cultural heritage.

Following the victory of Iran’s Islamic Revolution, efforts were made to prepare microfilms on handwritten books, which were completed in the year 1998 AD. Up to now, a number of the handwritten volumes of books in this library have been printed and published.

Abyaz Palace is one of the other beautiful palaces present in Golestan Palace compound, which has currently turned into a museum of anthropology. This museum displays the items of urban dwellers and villagers. Iran Museum of Anthropology was founded in the year 1935 AD, displaying items belonging to residents of different cities of Iran in the Qajarid and contemporary eras. In the year 1968 AD, the museum of anthropology was transferred from its previous venue to Abyaz Palace in Golestan Palace compound. This museum is one of the oldest museums of anthropology in Iran. The ground floor of this museum is the venue of the administrative office, while on the first floor of this museum, the clothes of men and women in the Qajarid era are on display.

In the waning years of rule of Qajarid King, Naser Ed-Din Shah, the Ottoman King, Shah Sultan Abdul-Hamid, presented a number of valuable items to this Qajarid king. Meanwhile, Naser Ed-Din Shah decided to construct a new building, which later came to be known as Abyaz Palace, in the southwestern corner of Golestan Palace compound, to display the gifts which were presented by the Ottoman king. This building’s façade was similar to that of 18th Century AD European palaces. Upon the very construction of Abyaz Palace, it was used as a venue for Cabinet meetings. The Abyaz Palace turned into a museum of anthropology in the year 1968 AD.

MR/MG

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Tourist Attractions Thu, 19 Nov 2015 16:28:46 +0000
Iran Your Attractive Destination (186) http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/218850-iran-your-attractive-destination-186 http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/218850-iran-your-attractive-destination-186

Welcome to the 186th weekly episode of the series Iran Your Attractive Destination. As a reminder, in the last episode, we spoke of Tehran’s marketplace. It is noteworthy that many cultural and historical organizations of Tehran are located adjacent to Tehran’s marketplace, turning that district into the historical and cultural center of Tehran. Some of the locations in this district are reminders of important periods of time in Iran’s history, such as Mashq Square, Melli Orchard gateway, Shams ul-Emareh, Imam Khomeini Square, and a number of historical monuments that have turned into a museum.

 

Tehran’s Mashq Square was built throughout the reign of the Qajarid King, Fath-Ali Shah. This square has been situated in one of the oldest neighborhoods of Tehran. It was registered as one of Iran’s national heritages in the year 1998 AD. This square further developed and expanded during the rule of the other Qajarid King, Naser Ed-Din Shah, under the supervision of Mohammad Khan Sepahsalar. In this square which covered an area of sixteen hectares in those days, military exercises were carried out every day. Later on, upon the development of the military forces, this square turned into the venue of the Cossack’s quarters and several large buildings were constructed in the vicinity of this square. Although currently the premises of the Foreign Ministry are located in the surroundings of this square, it remains to be known as Mashq Square or Melli Orchard. The buildings situated next to this square maintain an especial architectural style, which is a blend of the architectural styles of different historical periods of Iran and the European architectural styles.

During the rule of the Qajarid King, Naser Ed-Din Shah, the city of Tehran was developed and this historical square was situated at the heart of Tehran. The oldest building of this square is the Cossack’s quarters, which was constructed in the northern corner of this square during the rule of Fath Ali Shah. The most recent buildings of this square are the Melli library and National Malek Museum, which has been built in the year 1997 AD based on the traditional Iranian architectural style.

This district maintained an entry, referred to as Naseri Gateway, during the rule of Naser Ed-Din Shah. Throughout the rule of Reza Khan, an orchard was built in this district known as Melli Orchard.

This neighborhood of Tehran has been witness to many developments throughout the years. Naser Ed-Din Shah’s assassin, Mirza Reza Kermani, was hanged in Mashq Square. The first plane in Iran landed in this square amid World War I. This plane was put on public display for a while at this square. The flight of the first balloon of this city took place at this square. The Shia Mojtahed, and one of the leaders of Tobacco Movement, Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri was hanged in this square.

Melli Orchard’s gateway has been built based on a blend of Iranian and European architectural styles, especially in regard to its tiling. Melli Orchard’s gateway was constructed between 1922 and 1925, as the entry to Mashq Square. Following the construction of this gateway, the idea of creation of the first public orchard of the city of Tehran under the name of Melli Orchard was presented, and this orchard was constructed in the vicinity of Mashq Square. The Melli Orchard only lasted for a few years, while the premises of Foreign Ministry, Melli Library, and Iran-e Bastan Museum were later constructed in this venue. People consider Melli Orchard gateway as the symbol of Tehran’s contemporary history and as an example of the especial architectural style of the old neighborhoods of Tehran.

This gateway was built by the Kashani architect, Ostad Jafar Khan. In its façade, poems of the renowned poet, Nadim Ul-Molk, are evident on the tiled inscription of this gateway. This gateway was registered by the Cultural Heritage Organization in the year 1997 AD.

In the vicinity of Tehran’s Imam Khomeini Square, there is a highly attractive building, which covers an area of 10,000 square meters, housing Melli Library and Malek Museum. This library is one of the endowments of late Haaj Hussein Malek. He was interested in study and collection of books as of a young age, and founded this library and museum. Late Malek, in addition to endowment of this complex, donated many other properties to Astan-e Qods-e Razavi. The previous venue of this library was situated in the residential house of late Malek, and was later transferred to the new building. The current premises of this library and museum were opened in the year 1997, while its construction took twelve years. The Malek Melli Library maintains 19,000 highly valuable and rare hand-written books, and is considered as one of the main sources of Iran’s hand-written books. For instance, only 104 books and hand-written treatises of the renowned Iranian scientist, Avicenna, are kept in this library. This library also keeps nearly 70,000 printed books; the majority of which have been printed prior to the year 1941 AD.

This library communications with major global scientific centers, and is host to hundreds of researchers on a daily basis.

The Malek Museum displays a collection of the best works of acclaimed Iranian and foreign artists, including the paintings of Kamal Ul-Molk and a number of European painters. It has also put on display the works of major Iranian and Islamic calligraphers such as Ali-Reza Abbasi. The carpet hall of the museum displays 34 rugs and carpets from different parts of Iran, which have been produced by highly skilled weavers during the two recent centuries. The collection of stamps of the museum displays thousands of valuable stamps, which have been printed in Iran and the world up to the contemporary era, capturing the attention of all viewers.

MR/MG

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Tourist Attractions Thu, 19 Nov 2015 16:02:14 +0000
Iran Your Attractive Destination (185) http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/218849-iran-your-attractive-destination-185 http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/218849-iran-your-attractive-destination-185

Welcome to the 185th weekly episode of the series Iran Your Attractive Destination. In this episode, we become familiar with Tehran marketplace. As a reminder, previously we became partly familiar with the history of Tehran. The importance of Tehran as the capital of Iran, and due to its strategic position, has led to growth of the service sector, in particular trade and commerce, in addition to growth and development of the industrial, economic, and social activities in this city. In fact, Tehran’s marketplace is the largest and most active marketplace across the country.

 

Generally speaking, marketplaces are the main attractions of cities across Iran within the economic, social, and cultural realms, and with due regard their particular architectural styles. Given that Tehran marketplace is one of the important and interesting marketplaces of the country, we have allocated today’s episode to become familiar with this marketplace.

Majority of travelers who have visited Tehran’s marketplace, have described it, and have praised its attractions and beauties.

The French traveler, Ernest Ursel, refers to Tehran’s marketplace in his travelogue on 1882 AD.

He notes: Tehran marketplace is similar to a city, in itself. Twenty to twenty-five thousand people are active in this marketplace. It is also home to several roads and alleys, corridors, crossroads, guest houses, and mosques. The roofed corridors of this marketplace are located underneath domes, in which apertures are installed for entry of light rays and air current. Hence, the traders and customers of this marketplace are immune from the scorching heat of Tehran. This marketplace, in addition of being a huge venue for trade, is considered as an appropriate venue for meetings between people.

Each of cities of Iran has their own marketplace. Within the marketplaces of different cities of Iran, there are several buildings, with diverse functions. Familiarization with these buildings highly contributes to attainment of an understanding of the marketplace and even the related city. Tehran’s marketplace took shape during the reign of Qajarid King, Fath-Ali Shah. Today, this marketplace is made up of several corridors and alleys, with a large number of shops and stalls. Although as of several decades ago, new commercial centers have taken shape in different parts of Tehran; the Tehran marketplace remains to be one of the main trade centers of Tehran and even Iran, despite its age-old history. Tehran’s marketplace, similar to other traditional markets of Iran, is roofed with domes; which are mainly made of bricks.

In front of the main entry of Tehran’s marketplace, there is a huge space which is referred to as Sabz-e Meydaan. It is surrounded by shops. In the past, this square was the venue for distribution of different types of goods.

Upon the entry to Tehran marketplace, there is Imam Khomeini Mosque, which is one of the large and well-known mosques of Tehran. It has been constructed concurrent with the rule of Qajarid King, Fath-Ali Shah. The construction of this mosque ended in 1824 AD. The name of this Qajarid king has been written at the top of mosque’s large balcony. This mosque’s courtyard, roofed section, tiled dome, and shelves are very interesting and attractive and the one of a kind tile works of the Qajarid era are visible in it.

Imam Khomeini Mosque, in addition to being a site for observance of religious ceremonies and congregational prayers, acts like a loop, which links different parts of the marketplace to each other.

As of ancient times, Tehran’s marketplace was home to several main streets and passageways. There are also a large number of corridors in this marketplace. These paths are usually classified based on their related activities and goods. Today, many of the former small and well-known markets of this marketplace such as the market of blacksmiths, tobacco sellers, and hat sellers have been replaced with shops, trading luxurious goods and items.

Nonetheless, a number of these markets, such as the markets of goldsmiths, jewelry shops, fabric shops, carpet and household appliance markets remain as the most important and well-known markets of Tehran. The majority of young couples, who intend to get married, attend these markets, buying their wanted goods from them.

A number of smaller markets in Tehran’s marketplace have remained to this day, including the Bain ul-Haramain Market, which is located between Imam Khomeini and Ja’ameh Mosques. In the past, most of the old book stores of Tehran were located in this smaller market. Today, this market is home to stationery shops.

In the past, the intersections of main streets of the marketplace were of social and even political importance. Hence, the architectural style of these intersections is different to that of other parts of the marketplace.

One of the important trade centers in the market, are chambers surrounding a roofed courtyard. These are two-story and three-story shops and stalls; each of which belongs to a trader.

Moreover, in the past, Tehran’s marketplace was home to several guest houses. The French traveler, Ursel, in another part of his travelogue, describes the interior design of these guest houses. It partly reads: “The majority of these guest houses are endowed properties. Reception in them is free of charge. And the security guards of these guest houses are good people.”

The combination of shops and guest houses in Tehran marketplace has created an especial fiber. Public places; such as bathrooms, schools, mosques, Imamzadeh Holy Shrines, tea houses, and eateries are also present in this marketplace.

Today, Tehran’s marketplace has gone through major changes. A large part of the trade exchanges have been transferred out of Tehran’s marketplace. Today, throughout Tehran’s main streets, several shopping centers, and chain supermarkets meet the needs of people and customers.

MR/MG

 

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Tourist Attractions Thu, 19 Nov 2015 15:38:14 +0000
Iran Your Attractive Destination (184) http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/218220-iran-your-attractive-destination-184 http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/218220-iran-your-attractive-destination-184

Welcome to the 184th episode of the series Iran Your Attractive Destination. As a reminder, we became familiar with different parts of Tehran’s marketplace and its especial architectural features. We also mentioned the markets of carpet dealers, goldsmiths, cloth dealers, shoe makers, and household appliances, which are the most important and well-known markets within the framework of Tehran’s marketplace. In this episode, we become more familiarized with these markets in Tehran’s marketplace.

 

As of ancient times, marketplaces have maintained significant importance and multiple roles in urban communities. The most important role of the market is its economic role. It is a trade hub, which establishes a balance between the supply and demand markets, thereby setting the price of goods. The local markets are for supplying new domestic goods and exporting them to other countries. The trade of goods in the marketplace impacts the economic policy of the government, while the economic policy of government also impacts the trade of goods in the marketplace. Economic recession and development becomes evident in the marketplace. Given the importance of Iranian carpets, and their elevated status in the global markets, one of the main sections of Tehran’s marketplace is the carpet dealers market. Upon the entry to the marketplace, through its main gateway, one goes through the shoemakers market to reach the carpet dealers market. During the recent decades, the carpet dealers market has hugely expanded. Within the roofed courtyards and before the stalls of this market, a large number of original and beautiful hand-woven carpets have been spread on the floor.

In another part of this market, ancient carpets can be observed, with darners repairing them. Undoubtedly, the French traveler, Ursel, who had traveled to Iran many years ago, was astounded by the attractive carpets which were on display in this part of Tehran’s marketplace. This French traveler, in his travelogue, points out: The most interesting and attractive market in the world is Tehran’s carpet dealers market, which displays carpets in different sizes and patterns for a variety of tastes and purchasing powers.

After covering the carpet dealers market, we arrive at the cloth dealers market. This market is usually packed with customers, while the cloth dealers display different types of cloth and fabric in a variety of colors for the customers. Some stalls only sell cloths for production of suits. Meanwhile, the workers carry the purchased goods in their trolleys in this packed and crowded market.

Meanwhile, by going through the cloth dealers market, and within one of the main streets of Tehran’s marketplace, the Imamzadeh Zaid Shrine is located.

This is the Holy Shrine of Zaid ibn Ali (AS), one of the descendants of Prophet Mohammad (Blessings of God upon him and his progeny).  This holy shrine maintains a courtyard, a balcony decorated with cut pieces of mirror, and a tiled dome. The main building of this holy shrine was constructed in the Safavid era, in early years of 10th Century AH. However, its dome and balcony were built in mid-13th Century AH.  There is marble grave stone in the courtyard of this shrine which has been engraved with the name of Lotf Ali Khan Zand, the last king of Zandieh Dynasty. Also, there is a chamber in this holy shrine which is decorated with cut pieces of mirror, in which a number of prominent figures have been laid to rest. In the past, this holy shrine covered an area of more than 30,000 square meters.

Meanwhile, the goldsmiths market also maintains its own particular features and has been largely changed since the French traveler, Ursel, visited it.

Today, under the light of lampposts, different types of jewelry and gold are on display, with customers buying and selling different items. The economic importance of the goldsmiths market is perfectly clear, given the presence of several banks in the surroundings of this market.

 In some parts of this market, young couples are observed buying wedding rings, in the company of their families.

Dear listeners, Tehran’s marketplace maintains important economic, social, cultural, political, and religious roles in the lives of people. As of ancient times, religious ceremonies were convened in Tehran marketplace’s mosques and the marketplace was closed for mourning ceremonies and participation in religious ceremonies.

The study of Iran’s contemporary history shows the active role of the marketplace’s traders in different phases in time. Based on historical documents, amid the historical movements in Iran’s contemporary era, such as the Tobacco Movement, Constitutional Movement, and Islamic Revolution, the traders in the marketplace stood by the clergy, forming a united front against the foreign colonial powers, and the then despotic regimes. For instance, throughout the 1963 uprising, and the years leading to the victory of Iran’s Islamic Revolution, the traders in marketplace stood by the people Iran, and confronted the despotic Pahlavi regime.

Also, after the victory of Iran’s Islamic Revolution, the traders of the marketplace showed their support for the Islamic Revolution in different forms and shapes.

Meanwhile, the swift growth of Tehran has in some cases changed the traditional architectural style of Tehran’s marketplace, such that many of its parts have been reconstructed and/or renovated in recent years. The new shopping centers that have been added to Tehran’s marketplace in recent years have many customers, given that they render up to date goods to customers and maintain competitive prices.

MR/MG

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Tourist Attractions Fri, 06 Nov 2015 08:48:16 +0000
Iran Your Attractive Destination (183) http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/218219-iran-your-attractive-destination-183 http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/218219-iran-your-attractive-destination-183

Welcome to the 183rd episode of the series Iran Your Attractive Destination. As a reminder, previously we became partly familiar with the history of Tehran. The importance of Tehran as the capital of Iran, and due to its strategic position, has led to growth of the service sector, in particular trade and commerce, in addition to growth and development of the industrial, economic, and social activities in this city. In fact, Tehran’s marketplace is the largest and most active marketplace across the country.

 

Generally speaking, marketplaces are the main attractions of cities across Iran within the economic, social, and cultural realms, and with due regard their particular architectural styles. Given that Tehran marketplace is one of the important and interesting marketplaces of the country, we have allocated today’s episode to become familiar with this marketplace. Please accompany us in this journey.

Majority of travelers who have visited Tehran’s marketplace, have described it, and have praised its attractions and beauties.

The French traveler, Ernest Ursel, refers to Tehran’s marketplace in his travelogue on 1882 AD.

He notes: Tehran marketplace is similar to a city, in itself. Twenty to twenty-five thousand people are active in this marketplace. It is also home to several roads and alleys, corridors, crossroads, guest houses, and mosques. The roofed corridors of this marketplace are located underneath domes, in which apertures are installed for entry of light rays and air current. Hence, the traders and customers of this marketplace are immune from the scorching heat of Tehran. This marketplace, in addition of being a huge venue for trade, is considered as an appropriate venue for meetings between people.

Each of cities of Iran has their own marketplace. Within the marketplaces of different cities of Iran, there are several buildings, with diverse functions. Familiarization with these buildings highly contributes to attainment of an understanding of the marketplace and even the related city. Tehran’s marketplace took shape during the reign of Qajarid King, Fath-Ali Shah. Today, this marketplace is made up of several corridors and alleys, with a large number of shops and stalls. Although as of several decades ago, new commercial centers have taken shape in different parts of Tehran; the Tehran marketplace remains to be one of the main trade centers of Tehran and even Iran, despite its age-old history. Tehran’s marketplace, similar to other traditional markets of Iran, is roofed with domes; which are mainly made of bricks.

In front of the main entry of Tehran’s marketplace, there is a huge space which is referred to as Sabz-e Meydaan. It is surrounded by shops. In the past, this square was the venue for distribution of different types of goods.

Upon the entry to Tehran marketplace, there is Imam Khomeini Mosque, which is one of the large and well-known mosques of Tehran. It has been constructed concurrent with the rule of Qajarid King, Fath-Ali Shah. The construction of this mosque ended in 1824 AD. The name of this Qajarid king has been written at the top of mosque’s large balcony. This mosque’s courtyard, roofed section, tiled dome, and shelves are very interesting and attractive and the one of a kind tile works of the Qajarid era are visible in it.

Imam Khomeini Mosque, in addition to being a site for observance of religious ceremonies and congregational prayers, acts like a loop, which links different parts of the marketplace to each other.

As of ancient times, Tehran’s marketplace was home to several main streets and passageways. There are also a large number of corridors in this marketplace. These paths are usually classified based on their related activities and goods. Today, many of the former small and well-known markets of this marketplace such as the market of blacksmiths, tobacco sellers, and hat sellers have been replaced with shops, trading luxurious goods and items.

Nonetheless, a number of these markets, such as the markets of goldsmiths, jewelry shops, fabric shops, carpet and household appliance markets remain as the most important and well-known markets of Tehran. The majority of young couples, who intend to get married, attend these markets, buying their wanted goods from them.

A number of smaller markets in Tehran’s marketplace have remained to this day, including the Bain ul-Haramain Market, which is located between Imam Khomeini and Ja’ameh Mosques. In the past, most of the old book stores of Tehran were located in this smaller market. Today, this market is home to stationery shops.

Dear listeners, in the past, the intersections of main streets of the marketplace were of social and even political importance. Hence, the architectural style of these intersections is different to that of other parts of the marketplace.

One of the important trade centers in the market, are chambers surrounding a roofed courtyard. These are two-story and three-story shops and stalls; each of which belongs to a trader.

Moreover, in the past, Tehran’s marketplace was home to several guest houses. The French traveler, Ursel, in another part of his travelogue, describes the interior design of these guest houses. It partly reads: “The majority of these guest houses are endowed properties. Reception in them is free of charge. And the security guards of these guest houses are good people.”

The combination of shops and guest houses in Tehran marketplace has created an especial fiber. Public places; such as bathrooms, schools, mosques, Imamzadeh Holy Shrines, tea houses, and eateries are also present in this marketplace.

Today, Tehran’s marketplace has gone through major changes. A large part of the trade exchanges have been transferred out of Tehran’s marketplace. Today, throughout Tehran’s main streets, several shopping centers, and chain supermarkets meet the needs of people and customers.

MR/MG

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Tourist Attractions Fri, 06 Nov 2015 08:32:50 +0000
Iran Your Attractive Destination (182) http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/218027-iran-your-attractive-destination-182 http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/218027-iran-your-attractive-destination-182

Welcome to the 182nd episode of the series Iran Your Attractive Destination. As a reminder, previously we became familiar with the history of Tehran until the victory of Islamic Revolution in February 1979. In this episode, we study Tehran’s history after the victory of Islamic Revolution in Iran. In the year 1979 AD, Tehran, like other cities and villages of Tehran, was witness to a major Islamic movement. Millions of people flooded the streets and squares of Tehran, urging the ouster of former despotic Pahlavi regime, while demanding the nation’s dependence and freedom, and establishment of the sacred Islamic system.

 

The former despotic regime’s armed forces suppressed the anti-regime demonstrations of the revolutionary Iranian nation. In that year; Tehran University, mosques, streets, and pavements, especially Enqelab and Shohadaa Squares had turned into the major revolutionary centers. On September 8, 1978 AD, the mercenaries of Shah’s despotic regime slaughtered the revolutionary people at Shohadaa Square, ruthlessly martyring a large number of men, women, and children.

On November 4, 1978 AD, Tehran University and its surrounding streets were the scene of Shah regime mercenaries’ attacks against pupils, students, and people. On February 1, 1979, people of Tehran accorded a unique welcome to the Father of Islamic Revolution, late Imam Khomeini (May his soul rest in peace). Millions of people gathered throughout a distance of thirty kilometers to welcome the arrival of the Father of Islamic Revolution, late Imam Khomeini (May his soul rest in peace). Ten days later, on February 11, 1979, the despotic Pahlavi regime was toppled and the Islamic Revolution triumphed under the leadership and guidance of late Imam Khomeini (May his soul rest in peace). Thereafter, Tehran has always witnessed people’s enthusiastic presence in different social and political scenes.

On November 4, 1979 AD, Muslim and revolutionary students took over the US den of espionage in Tehran, which was referred to as the Second Revolution by the Founder of Islamic Republic of Iran, late Imam Khomeini (May his soul rest in peace).

In the months prior to victory of Islamic Revolution, the major streets and squares of Tehran were the scene of massive protests by the revolutionary people. Following the victory of Islamic Revolution, people of Tehran, on a number of occasions, also held gatherings to approve the Islamic Revolution and to voice support for its ideals.

After the victory of Islamic Revolution, the glorious Friday Prayers are convened at Tehran University in the presence of large numbers of worshippers.

Friday Prayers change the atmosphere of Tehran on Friday noon, establishing further amity among people and granting spirituality to Tehran’s atmosphere. Moreover, Friday Prayers raise an appropriate opportunity for the officials of sacred Islamic system to analyze and study the main topics of importance of Iran and the world for people.

On September 22, 1980, Tehran’s Mehrabad Airport was pounded by the Iraqi Ba’th minority regime’s warplanes. Concurrently, the fully equipped army of Saddam’s regime raided the western and southern cities of Iran. Although Tehran was far from warfronts, this city experienced major changes throughout the imposed war. Large numbers of refugees headed for this city from southern and western regions of Iran, in addition to many Iraqi refugees, who opposed Saddam’s regime. The imposed war brought about many detrimental consequences, while Tehran was bombarded by the enemy warplanes time and again. Upon the termination of the imposed war, a fresh era began for construction and development of the country.

Given that the people of a number of villages and cities in Iran were suffering from disadvantages and shortages resulting from the policies of Pahlavi regime’s suppressive policies, many headed for Tehran and other large cities in the early years after the victory of Islamic Revolution. In addition to the detrimental impacts of the imposed war, the phenomenon of irregular migration imposed numerous problems on Tehran. Despite all of Tehran’s problems in the past three decades, this city has tried to maintain its identity, while concurrently turning into one of the most beautiful cities of the world. Elimination of shantytowns, which were considered as the place of residence of low-income families, and their transformation into beautiful green areas and parks; fair distribution of urban facilities across the southern and northern regions of Tehran; construction of highways, subway stations, huge buildings and towers; expansion of educational and cultural centers; and enhancement of inner-city and outer-city green areas, are part of the activities which have been carried out in Tehran in the past three decades.

Currently, the city of Tehran has accommodated more than ten million people. Naturally, transportation of these people leads to traffic congestions and air pollution. However, the location of Tehran on the foothills of Alborz Mountain Range, and presence of several summer quarters in the vicinity of this city has distinguished Tehran from many other populous cities in the world.

Tehran’s surrounding summer quarters are some of the most interesting tourist attraction sites in the vicinity of Tehran. Maybe for this reason, as of ancient times, any traveler who has visited Tehran has allocated part of his travelogue to description of Tehran’s scenic summer quarters. People of Tehran have always been keen to attend these summer quarters in every opportunity that has been raised, especially throughout the weekends. This is because they can attend these summer quarters by covering a short distance.

We allocate the last part of this discussion to introduction of a book on Tehran, titled: “Tehran at a glance”. This book has been penned by a number of authors and has been published by the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, in the year 1992 AD. It includes tens of attractive photos on the city of Tehran. The book also covers valuable information in Farsi and English languages, coupled with poems from renowned Iranian poets. This book is highly appropriate for tourists, who visit Tehran.

MR/MG

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Tourist Attractions Mon, 02 Nov 2015 07:39:44 +0000
Iran Your Attractive Destination (181) http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/218026-iran-your-attractive-destination-181 http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/218026-iran-your-attractive-destination-181

Welcome to the 181st weekly episode of the series Iran Your Attractive Destination. As a reminder, previously we became partly familiar with the history of Tehran. It was said that in the year 1785 AD, the Qajarid King, Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar, chose Tehran as the capital of Iran and was officially crowned in this city in the year 1795 AD. He chose Tehran as the capital of his rule for a number of reasons, including the strategic position of this city and its appropriate economic conditions, reviving this city. Upon development of this city and a rise in migration to Tehran, in addition to construction of new buildings in this city, the stage was set for a change in the fences which were constructed in the Safavid era around Tehran. Eighty-Five years after the conquest of Tehran by the Qajarid troops; the towers, ramparts, and gateways of the castle of former Safavid King, Shah Tahmasb, began to collapse and crumble. The traditional Tehran was forced to go through changes.

 

The period of rule of the Qajarid King, Naser Ed-Din Shah, is otherwise known as the Naseri Era, which saw major social, political, and cultural developments in Iran. In this phase in time, under the impact of Europe’s industrial civilization and the colonial policies of the West, Iran entered a new stage; the results of which became evident in the form of Constitutional Movement and other developments, following the death of Naser Ed-Din Shah. The fifty-year rule of this Qajarid King from 1849 AD to 1898 AD marks the development of Tehran, as Iran’s Capital. Unfortunately, there is no trace of the valuable historical monuments of that era. In the beginning of Naser Ed-Din Shah’s rule, the population of Tehran significantly grew and there was no longer any space for constructions within the past boundaries of Tehran. In this period of time, Tehran widely expanded and new fences and trenches were constructed around Tehran.

Upon the efforts of the then Iranian premier, Amir Kabir; Daar ul-Fonoun School, Amir Marketplace, and the shoe-makers market were founded in Tehran. In the year 1826 AD, the Russian Orientalist, Berezin, for the first time, prepared Tehran’s map, which was published in the Russian city of Saint Petersburg.

In the year 1867 AD, another map of Tehran was prepared with the cooperation of French engineers. New lands were included in Tehran’s boundaries and the city was restricted by new trenches and ramparts. The city’s link to the outside world was through twelve gateways.

After the assassination of Naser Ed-Din Shah, the other Qajarid King, Mozafar Ed-Din Shah, ascended the throne in the year 1895 AD. In the year 1905 AD, Tehran turned into the scene of Constitutional Movement. The reasons and motivations behind the emergence of Constitutional Movement and its related developments are not discussed in this series. However, it should be pointed out that the market and mosques of Tehran played a major role in the formation of Constitutional Movement.

The people of Tehran under the leadership of Ulema and clerics gathered in mosques and finally managed to receive the order of formation of parliamentary system by Mozafar Ed-Din Shah in the year 1906 AD. This Qajarid king died a few months after issuance of this instruction. Thereafter, Mohammad Ali Shah ascended the throne, and was crowned in Golestan Palace. Mohammad Ali Shah was against the Constitutional Movement and establishment of a parliamentary system, and made strenuous efforts to crush the Constitutional Movement. Finally, in the year 1908 AD, he attacked the parliament and killed a number of lawmakers, while imprisoning others; restoring his despotic regime.

Following the Constitutional Movement, the city of Tehran grappled with political, social, and economic instability, which in turn obstructed the growth and development of Tehran. In the era of Mohammad Ali Shah, a blow was dealt against the valuable and historical buildings of Tehran and they were neglected. Also, the confrontations of the despotic regime’s troopers with the freedom-seekers damaged some well-known buildings in Tehran, such as Baharestan Building, and Sepahsalar Mosque.

The waning years of the rule of Qajarid Dynasty were concurrent with World War I, local movements, famine, and insecurity.

In this period of time, governments were fragile and grappled with political problems. As of the year 1921 AD, upon the coup staged by Reza Khan, a different situation took shape in Iran and Tehran. The most important features of this era include the guidance of the county toward the capitalist system, coupled with dictatorship and suppression of people.

In this period of time, Western states were adopted as absolute role models for growth, while the then government expanded and a number of factories were established in the vicinity of Tehran.

Concurrent with expansion of Tehran, its gateways were destructed, its trenches were filled, and its ancient towers and ramparts were razed to the ground, and Tehran gradually lost its historical identity. The structure and shape and fiber of many districts of Tehran changed. In this era, the destruction of homes and shops of people and historical monuments of this city turned into an ordinary matter.

Prior to foundation of Qajarid dynasty and selection of Tehran as the capital of Iran, Tehran was a small town with a population of15000 people. Thereafter, its population significantly grew and Tehran turned into the largest city of Iran in mid-Qajarid era. Based on the first census of Tehran in the year 1957 AD, its population stood at nearly 1.6 million people.

The huge oil revenues, controlled by affiliates to Pahlavi despotic regime, led to investment in Tehran at the expense of deprivation of other Iranian cities and villages. Tehran grew in an irregular and unbalanced manner. Throughout 1942 AD to 1977 AD, migration to Tehran continued and several towns were formed in the east, west, and south of this city, which were gradually included in Greater Tehran. Based on a census in the year 1977 AD, Tehran’s population stood at 4.5 million people. As of 1977 AD to 1979 AD, irregular migration to Tehran mounted the problems of this city. While the Pahlavi despotic regime had accumulated huge wealth upon pillage of people, and was constructing palaces on the foothills of Alborz Mountain Range; the city of Tehran was witness to the ouster of Pahlavi regime and the victory of Islamic Revolution in February 1979 AD.

MR/MG

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Tourist Attractions Mon, 02 Nov 2015 07:22:40 +0000
Iran Your Attractive Destination (180) http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/218025-iran-your-attractive-destination-180 http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/218025-iran-your-attractive-destination-180

Welcome to the 180th weekly episode of the series Iran Your Attractive Destination. In this episode, we will become familiar with the history of Tehran, the capital of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Based on recent findings of studies carried out on Tehran Province, the most ancient traces of presence of man in this region have been located in Kilan region, in the vicinity of Damavand, dating back to 14,000 years ago.
These studies note that the men of that era were cave dwellers and hunters. More historical sites dating back from 8,000 years ago to Medes era have been found in Tehran Province.

 

The history behind residence in Tehran dates back to 5000 BC. In the year 2015, the skeleton of a man, belonging to 5000 BC was unearthed in the Molavi District of Tehran. Previously, it was thought that men had took up residence in the present day city of Tehran as of 3000 BC, based on the discoveries made in Qaytarieh district. Prior to these discoveries, it was believed that the history of Tehran dates back to Parthian era, nearly 2000 years ago. At that time, Tehran was a village, north of the developed and important city of Rayy. The Achaemenian Iranian King, Darius, has referred to the city of Rayy in an inscription, which belongs to that era.

The popularity of Rayy reached its peak in the Sassanid era, and many historical works are situated in Rayy which date back to that era.

In the 4th Century AH, the city of Rayy was one of the important cities of the East. However, later on, it was leveled amid Mongol raids in 617 AH. In the coming weeks, we will speak about the history of Rayy and its current state.

Meanwhile, it is noteworthy that in that period of time, Tehran was a large village with many orchards, and was considered as a summer quarter for the residents of Rayy. The residents of Tehran had basements, which they sought refuge in upon enemy raids. They could resist against enemies for months with the food which they stored. Hence, Tehran was immune from Mongol raids, and gained importance after the destruction of Rayy.

The oldest writing which has mentioned Tehran has been compiled by Abu Ishaq Istakhri in 340 AH. Thereafter, the historians, “Yaqut al-Hamavi” and “Ibn Hawqal Baghdadi” have also authored articles on Tehran. For instance, Yaqut al-Hamavi writes: Tehran is a large village, in which houses are built underground.

The other historian, Mohammad Qazvini, has said that the residents of Tehran have built houses underground and whenever enemies attack this village, people of Tehran come out of their houses and confront them.

The books authored by geographers and researchers on Tehran confirm that in ancient times, Tehran was one of the villages in the vicinity of the city of Rayy. This city was an important political, commercial, administrative and religious center and had captured the attention of many, and therefore was always raided and attacked.

Meanwhile, the village of Tehran was a safe haven for fugitive statesmen because of the difficulty to infiltrate this village.

The Safavid era marked the very beginning of the growth and development of Tehran. The Safavid King, Shah Tahmasb, who had chosen the city of Qazvin as his capital, at times traveled to the city of Rayy to pay pilgrimage to the tomb of the Safavid ancestor, Seyed Hamzeh. Tehran maintained a moderate and mild climate and was home to many orchards and creeks. Therefore, it captured the attention of the king and gradually he resided in Tehran for longer periods of time. In the year 961 AH, a rampart was built around Tehran, in addition to 114 towers.

At that time, Tehran maintained four gateways. Later on, two other gateways were added. For the construction of the rampart, sand was excavated from districts which became popularly known as Chaal-e Maidan, and Chaal Hesaar.

The famous Italian traveler, Pietro Della Valle, who had traveled to Tehran concurrent with the reign of the Safavid King, Shah Abbas, in the year 1028 AH, notes: Tehran is larger than Kashan. But, Tehran’s population is less than Kashan’s population. One third of Tehran’s area is home to buildings and two third of area covered by Tehran are orchards. Sycamore trees have been planted in Tehran, some of which are very thick in diameter.

After the collapse of Safavid Dynasty and instatement of Afsharieh Dynasty, the Iranian King, Nader Shah, appointed his senior son, Reza Qoli Mirza, as the ruler of Tehran in 1152 AH. Upon the emergence of political chaos in the country, in the aftermath of demise of Nader Shah, in the year 1172 AH, Karim Khan Zand was instated as the ruler of Iran, in Tehran. He chose Tehran as his capital for four years and constructed new buildings in it. Meanwhile, in the wake of Karim Khan Zand’s confrontations with Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar, he transferred the capital from Tehran to Shiraz.

After a short period of time, Tehran was once again chosen as Iran’s capital.

The first king, who chose Tehran as its capital, was the Qajarid King, Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar. He clashed with Tehran’s ruler, Qafour Khan, beating all of his rivals. Aqa Mohammad Khan was crowned in Tehran in 1174 AH. Upon his empowerment, he ordered his officials to mint coins under his name, while choosing Tehran as his capital. The selection of Tehran as the capital of Iran by Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar was due to a number of reasons; the most important of which was the vicinity of Tehran to the fertile lands of Varamin. The other reason was the proximity of Tehran to the city of Astarabad, and Mazandaran, which was the place of residence of leading supporters of Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar. As of this period of time, Tehran began to develop and grow. During the rule of Fath-Ali Shah, who came to power after Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar, Tehran developed more than ever, and new buildings were constructed in Tehran. Due to the development of Tehran, a number of residents of other cities migrated to this city, significantly growing Tehran’s population.
Jacques Morier, who traveled to Tehran in 1222 AH, describes this city in his travelogue, referring to the public bathrooms, guest houses, and squares in this city.

The era of rule of Qajarid King, Naser Ed-Din Shah, was concurrent with social, political, and cultural developments in Iran. In this era, under the impact of Europe’s industrial civilization, and West’s colonial policies, Iran entered a new phase, the outcomes of which led to the Constitutional Movement after the death of Naser Ed-Din Shah. The population of Tehran grew in this phase.

MR/MG

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Tourist Attractions Mon, 02 Nov 2015 07:18:58 +0000
Iran Your Attractive Destination (179) http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/214573-iran-your-attractive-destination-179 http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/214573-iran-your-attractive-destination-179

Welcome to the 179th weekly episode of the series Iran Your Attractive Destination. As a reminder, we became familiar with the geographical position and historical background of Elam Province, last week, and mentioned that this province is home to many historical sites, while enjoying an intact nature and scenic landscapes. Today, we introduce some of the provincial cities, historical monuments, and tourist attractions.

 

The city of Shirvan VA Chardavel is located in the northeastern corner of Elam Province, and is 737 kilometers away from the Iranian Capital, Tehran. This city maintains a moderate, mountainous climate, and is home to countless historical sites. In fact, the history of this town dates back to the Sassanid era. The ancient city of Shirvan was located on the northern banks of Saymareh River; the remains of which are evident to this day. The ruins of its historical monuments, such as the remains of a historical castle, Saam Zoroastrian Temple, 160 historical hills, and the ruins of the ancient civilization in Halilan and Mobin districts, manifest the ancient history of this region.

The ancient city of Shirvan in Elam Province is situated on the foothills. It is engulfed by Zagros Mountain Range. This historical town dates back to the Sassanid era and was considered as one of the centers of civilization, up until the 5th Century AH. The construction materials used for building this ancient city are stones, mortar, and plaster. This city, at the peak of its grandeur, was one of the important and developed towns of the Sassanid era. The presence of historical bridges, roads, courtyards, castles, and settlements, manifest the importance of this ancient city.

The Kazabad Hills are some of the other valuable sites of Shirvan VA Chardavel, which are situated in northeast of this city. On the eastern corner of these hills, remains of painted jars have been unearthed, which date back to more than 3,000 years ago. Also, remains of pieces of cut stones have been discovered in the said region. North of these hills, there is a large cemetery, in which several historical items and mud-made jars have been found.
Saam Castle is another historical site of Shirvan VA Chardavel. It is made of three connected sections, and dates back to the waning years of Parthian era and the early years of Sassanid era. The architectural style of this castle maintains a defense and military aspect. The architect of this castle has constructed the related towers, chambers, and gateways with due consideration of the natural position of the rocks. In general, the architectural style of the Sassanid era is evident in the design of this palace. Stones, plaster, mortar, and mud are the construction materials used in the castle. Next to this castle, large sycamore trees are spotted which date back to 500 years ago. Fresh water springs are also located next to this ancient castle.

The city of Mehran is also located in Elam Province, next to Iran-Iraq border. It maintains highly fertile lands. The residents of this city are Kurdish people, who converse in Kurdish language. The economic mainstay of the people of this region is farming, and they mainly cultivate wheat.

There is an Assyrian inscription in this city, which dates back to roughly 3,000 years ago. It is oblong shaped with 130X90 centimeters dimensions. Its height from the ground stands at 270 centimeters. On this inscription, an Assyrian soldier has been depicted, holding a spear. On the lower section of this inscription, several sentences in cuneiform language have been engraved which were translated by Mr. Vandenberg in 1973 AD. These sentences refer to the conquest of Elam and Lorestan by the Assyrians.

The city of Evan is located north of Elam Province, 761 kilometers away from the city of Tehran. It maintains a moderate, mountainous climate. It is one of the new provincial cities, and is highly apt for agriculture and animal husbandry. It is home to an astounding nature and historical monuments.

The Siahgol Zoroastrian Temple is a historical site, which belongs to Sassanid era, located 25 kilometers from the city of Evan on the southern banks of River Gangir. This historical site is rather unique and is granted significant importance in archeological studies. It has a square shaped balcony at the height of ten meters. The diameter of the walls of this temple is one meter. It has a fire place. On the higher section of this historical site, pores have been installed for the exit of fumes. This temple was surrounded by a courtyard, which has been destroyed throughout the course of history. The temple’s construction materials were stones, mortar, and plaster.

In the vicinity of this temple, remains of other ancient buildings have been discovered, which raises the possibility of presence of the lost city of Arivjaan in this region. Arivjaan is a historical city of Elam Province which according to the then travelers and their travelogues was located on the banks of River Gangir.

The Shirin VA Farhad Arch is located in the city of Evan and belongs to the Sassanid era. The related building has two arches and a gateway, which maintain a unique architectural style.

The city of Abdanan is in Elam Province. In this region, there are ample mineral sources such as sulfur, oil, and vitriol. Also, given the ample water sources and presence of forests and meadows, this region’s soil is highly apt for agriculture and animal husbandry. The presence of historical sites in this region proves its ancient history. Gabran Cemetery is one of such historical sites.

The Siahgaav Twin Lakes in this city maintain the capacity to turn into a top international tourist destination. River Siahgaav runs through a valley, 45 kilometers southeast of Abdanan, forming two lakes.

The pristine water, cane field, and colorful fish grant further beauty to this unique scenic landscape. These two lakes each have a 30-meter radius and are 3 meters in depth. The moderate regional climate has captured the attention of tourists toward these two lakes all year long.

 

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Tourist Attractions Sat, 22 Aug 2015 09:27:11 +0000
Iran Your Attractive Destination (178) http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/214572-iran-your-attractive-destination-178 http://english.irib.ir/programs/iran/item/214572-iran-your-attractive-destination-178

Welcome to the 178th weekly episode of the series Iran Your Attractive Destination. Today, we travel to Elam Province, which is known for its historical monuments, intact nature, and scenic landscape. Elam Province covers an area of roughly 19086 square kilometers. It is a mountainous region situated in west and southwest Iran, and engulfed by Zagros Mountain Range.

 

Elam Province is bound to Kermanshah Province from the north; Part of Khuzestan Province and Iraq from the south; Lorestan Province from the east; and Iraq from the west. Elam Mountains are part of Zagros Mountain Range, and have been stretched from northwest to southeast. The northern and northeastern regions of Elam Province are mountainous regions. The western and southwestern regions of Elam Province consist of plains and low altitude lands.

Elam Province mainly maintains a warm climate. However, due to its altitudes, there is a large difference in temperature and rainfall throughout its northern, southern, and western regions. In fact it can be said that this province consists of three regions with warm, cold, and moderate climates. The ample annual rainfall in this province has led to emergence and formation of several rivers. To make the best of these rivers’ water currents; several dams and canals have been constructed. The capital of this province is the city of Elam, which is home to countless scenic landscapes.

Elam’s mountainous regions and vast plains are the habitats of different types of flora and fauna. Forested regions covered with oak trees are evident across the foothills of this province. Also, several rivers and waterfalls exist over there, granting especial beauty to these ever-green regions. The fact of the matter is that Elam is one of the intact regions of Iran and maintains valuable potentials and capacities for ecotourism.

This region is also home to valuable historical monuments, which are reminders of ancient Iran’s legendary figures. Moreover, the social and cultural attractions of this province have turned Elam into a top tourist destination. Beautiful and wild flowers cover this region in the spring season, while the summer season is considered as the high season for visits to this astounding province.

Based on historical evidences, this region was part of ancient Elamite Empire, which was overthrown by a powerful Assyrian king in 3000 BC. Babylon’s inscriptions have referred to Elam as Aalam. A while after the fall of Elamite Empire, its related territory was divided into two regions, governed by Scythian and Medes tribes.

Also, Elam was part of the Achaemenian Empire. Upon the conquest of Iran by Muslim Arabs, this region was apparently part of Kufa Province. As of early 4th to early 6th Century AH, the Hassanouyeh Kurd Dynasty governed Lorestan and Elam regions, while as of 570 AH to 1006 AH, the Atabakan Lor Dynasty rule Lorestan and Poshtkouh.

The self-autonomous rule of Wallian Dynasty in Elam and Poshtkouh lasted three centuries, although the capital of their rule was not fixed under the impact of regional social circumstances. The last ruler of this dynasty was overthrown in the year 1928 AD and the present day city of Elam was founded in a region, popularly known as Hussein Abad, in the year 1929 AD.

In September 1935, upon the approval of the then cabinet and in order to remind the grandeur and glory of the ancient Elamite Civilization, the village of Hussein Abad was renamed as Elam, and was chosen as the capital of Elam Province.

The city of Elam is engulfed by mountains and high-altitude forested regions. It maintains a moderate climate. Currently, Elam is one of the developed cities in western Iran. It is home to historical monuments and is one of the most beautiful provincial cities. The most important historical monuments of this city include several castles, ancient mills, bridges, inscriptions, and sites of pilgrimage.

Additionally, the unique nature of this city displays several waterfalls, caves, marshlands, aqueducts, springs, and thick forested regions.

The economic mainstays in Elam, like many other mountainous regions, are agriculture and animal husbandry. In the majority of provincial regions, the agriculture activities are carried out in a traditional manner. The most important agricultural product of this province is wheat. There are ample capacities in this province for development of animal husbandry. Currently, a lion’s share of the provincial revenues belongs to the agriculture sector. The diverse climatic conditions, presence of mountains, forests, and meadows, and different types of flowers and plants in spring and summer seasons, have all created the best possible conditions for apiculture.

The industrial sector is much smaller than the service and agriculture sectors in this province. Currently, oil and natural gas reserves have been discovered in this region.

Elam Province is a nomadic region and therefore the handicrafts sector in this province maintains a promising horizon. Carpets and rugs, felts, and wooden industries are the most important provincial handicrafts.

The common language of 70% of the residents of Elam Province is Kurdish. The people of Lor ethnicity are scattered in the southern and eastern cities of this province. Arabs reside in the southern tip of this province, neighboring Khuzestan Province.

 

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Tourist Attractions Sat, 22 Aug 2015 09:22:53 +0000