Elam Province is bound to Kermanshah Province from the north; Part of Khuzestan Province and Iraq from the south; Lorestan Province from the east; and Iraq from the west. Elam Mountains are part of Zagros Mountain Range, and have been stretched from northwest to southeast. The northern and northeastern regions of Elam Province are mountainous regions. The western and southwestern regions of Elam Province consist of plains and low altitude lands.
Elam Province mainly maintains a warm climate. However, due to its altitudes, there is a large difference in temperature and rainfall throughout its northern, southern, and western regions. In fact it can be said that this province consists of three regions with warm, cold, and moderate climates. The ample annual rainfall in this province has led to emergence and formation of several rivers. To make the best of these rivers’ water currents; several dams and canals have been constructed. The capital of this province is the city of Elam, which is home to countless scenic landscapes.
Elam’s mountainous regions and vast plains are the habitats of different types of flora and fauna. Forested regions covered with oak trees are evident across the foothills of this province. Also, several rivers and waterfalls exist over there, granting especial beauty to these ever-green regions. The fact of the matter is that Elam is one of the intact regions of Iran and maintains valuable potentials and capacities for ecotourism.
This region is also home to valuable historical monuments, which are reminders of ancient Iran’s legendary figures. Moreover, the social and cultural attractions of this province have turned Elam into a top tourist destination. Beautiful and wild flowers cover this region in the spring season, while the summer season is considered as the high season for visits to this astounding province.
Based on historical evidences, this region was part of ancient Elamite Empire, which was overthrown by a powerful Assyrian king in 3000 BC. Babylon’s inscriptions have referred to Elam as Aalam. A while after the fall of Elamite Empire, its related territory was divided into two regions, governed by Scythian and Medes tribes.
Also, Elam was part of the Achaemenian Empire. Upon the conquest of Iran by Muslim Arabs, this region was apparently part of Kufa Province. As of early 4th to early 6th Century AH, the Hassanouyeh Kurd Dynasty governed Lorestan and Elam regions, while as of 570 AH to 1006 AH, the Atabakan Lor Dynasty rule Lorestan and Poshtkouh.
The self-autonomous rule of Wallian Dynasty in Elam and Poshtkouh lasted three centuries, although the capital of their rule was not fixed under the impact of regional social circumstances. The last ruler of this dynasty was overthrown in the year 1928 AD and the present day city of Elam was founded in a region, popularly known as Hussein Abad, in the year 1929 AD.
In September 1935, upon the approval of the then cabinet and in order to remind the grandeur and glory of the ancient Elamite Civilization, the village of Hussein Abad was renamed as Elam, and was chosen as the capital of Elam Province.
The city of Elam is engulfed by mountains and high-altitude forested regions. It maintains a moderate climate. Currently, Elam is one of the developed cities in western Iran. It is home to historical monuments and is one of the most beautiful provincial cities. The most important historical monuments of this city include several castles, ancient mills, bridges, inscriptions, and sites of pilgrimage.
Additionally, the unique nature of this city displays several waterfalls, caves, marshlands, aqueducts, springs, and thick forested regions.
The economic mainstays in Elam, like many other mountainous regions, are agriculture and animal husbandry. In the majority of provincial regions, the agriculture activities are carried out in a traditional manner. The most important agricultural product of this province is wheat. There are ample capacities in this province for development of animal husbandry. Currently, a lion’s share of the provincial revenues belongs to the agriculture sector. The diverse climatic conditions, presence of mountains, forests, and meadows, and different types of flowers and plants in spring and summer seasons, have all created the best possible conditions for apiculture.
The industrial sector is much smaller than the service and agriculture sectors in this province. Currently, oil and natural gas reserves have been discovered in this region.
Elam Province is a nomadic region and therefore the handicrafts sector in this province maintains a promising horizon. Carpets and rugs, felts, and wooden industries are the most important provincial handicrafts.
The common language of 70% of the residents of Elam Province is Kurdish. The people of Lor ethnicity are scattered in the southern and eastern cities of this province. Arabs reside in the southern tip of this province, neighboring Khuzestan Province.